HYPERSPECTRAL CLASSIFICATION FOR IDENTIFYING DECAYED ORANGES INFECTED BY FUNGI
Keywords:Orange, Fungal infection, Decay detection, Hyperspectral imaging, Fruit quality
Fast and nondestructive detection of early decay caused by fungal infection in citrus fruit was a challenging task for the citrus industry during the postharvest fruit processing. In general, workers relied on the ultraviolet induction fluorescence technique to detect and remove the decayed citrus fruits in fruit packing houses. However, this operation was harmful for human health, and was also very inefficient. In this study, navel oranges were used as research object. A novel method combining with hyperspectral imaging technology in the wavelength region between 400 and 1100 nm wavelength was proposed to solve this problem. First, normalization approaches were applied to decrease the variation of spectral reflectance intensity due to natural curvature of navel orange surface. Then, the spectral data of regions of interest (ROIs) from normal and decayed tissues was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) for investigating the performance of visible and near infrared (Vis-NIR) hyperspectral data to discriminate these two kinds of tissues. Next, six characteristic wavelength images were obtained by analyzing the loadings of the first principal component (PC1). And, a multispectral image was established by using the corrected six characteristic wavelength images. On basis of the multispectral image, pseudo-color image processing with intensity slicing was utilized to produce a two-dimensional color image with clear contrast between decayed and normal tissues. Finally, an image segmentation algorithm by combining the pseudo-color processing method and a global threshold method was proposed for fast identification of decayed navel oranges. For 240 independent samples, the success rates were 100 and 97.5% for decayed navel oranges infected by Penicillium digitatum and normal navel oranges, respectively. In particular, the proposed algorithm was also applied to detect the decayed navel oranges infected by Penicillium italicum (samples not used for the development of algorithm) and obtained a 91.7% identification accuracy, indicating a well generalization ability and actual application value of the proposed algorithm.