The effect of sugar cane concentration on foam-mat drying kinetics and physicochemical properties of dried-tomato pasta sauce
We investigated the effect of sugar cane level and foaming process on the foaming properties, drying kinetics, and physicochemical properties of dried pasta sauce. Experiments were conducted on drying pasta sauce based on tomatoes, both non-foamed and foamed, at selected sugar cane concentrations (0, 15, and 30% g sugar/g concentrated tomato) and a constant drying temperature of 60.C. The results indicated that the density and viscosity of foamed pasta sauce were lower than that of non-foamed pasta sauce, thereby increasing the drying rate. The higher the sugar cane concentration, the higher the density and viscosity of pasta sauce, resulting in a slower drying rate. The Page model was found as the best model to describe the drying kinetics of pasta sauce. The foaming process and reducing sugarcane concentration generally decreased the final moisture and sucrose content, water activity, water solubility index, and hygroscopicity. Moreover, they increased protein content, water absorption index, and the color of dried pasta sauce. Considering the drying rate and physicochemical properties, we proposed the foaming process and less sugar concentration to produce dried-tomato pasta sauce.
Keywords: Drying kinetics; Foaming process; Pasta sauce powder; Sugar cane
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