Mineral composition of raw and marinated-cooked arms from Pacific giant squid (Dosidicus gigas).

  • Faustina Fernández Department of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Murcia, Murcia, 30100, Spain
  • Celia Lucas and Sancho Bañón Department of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Murcia, Murcia, 30100, Spain


Background/aim: Shellfish consumption is often perceived as a potential health hazard due to the accumulation of toxic metals. The mineral content was investigated in marinated-cooked giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) arms from three Eastern Pacific fisheries (Peru, Chile and Benthic) to elucidate their contribution to daily recommended intakes and possible presence of pollutants. Material and methods: Thirty macro- and microminerals were analysed in the raw material, marination solution, cooking broth and cooked product. Results: Both raw and marinated-cooked squid arms contained nutritionally relevant quantities of essential macro- (Na and Mg) and microminerals (Cr, Zn, Mn and Se). Fishery origin led to minor variations in the mineral composition of raw arms, while marinated-cooked arms of Benthic origin had a higher retention of Na and juice likely due to their greater size.  Levels of Pb, Hg, Zn or As found in the ready-to-eat product were below tolerable upper intake levels. Conclusion: The mineral content found in the raw squid arms suggests that the Pacific fisheries concerned are not affected by human polluting activities. Marinated-cooked squid arms cover a part of the dietary requirements for minerals and can be consumed without apparent negative nutritional implications.


Agusa, T., T. Kunito, A. Sudaryanto, I. Monirith, S. Kan-Atireklap, H. Iwata, A. Ismail, J. Sanguansin, M. Muchcar, T.S. Tana and S. Tanabe. 2007. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia. Environ. Pollut. 145(3): 766–777.

Ayas, Z., G. Ekmekci, S. V. Yerli and M. Ozmen. 2007. Heavy metal accumulation in water, sediments and fishes of Nallihan Bird Paradise, Turkey. J. Environ. Biol. 28(3): 545–549.

Azlan, A., M. Izuan, E. Halmi, M. Radyaqsa and U. N. Makassar. 2012. Heavy metals (mercury, arsenic, cadmium, plumbum) in selected marine fish and shellfish along the Straits of Malacca. Int. Food Res. J. 19(1): 135-140.

Bayen, S., P. Barlow, H. K. Lee, and J. P. Obbard. 2005. Effect of cooking on the loss of persistent organic pollutants from salmon. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health - Part A 68(4): 253–265.

Carvalho, M. L., S. Santiago and M. L. Nunes. 2005. Assessment of the essential element and heavy metal content of edible fish muscle. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 382(2): 426–432.

Castro-González, M. I. and M. Méndez-Armenta. 2008. Heavy metals: Implications associated to fish consumption. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 26(3): 263–271.

Catsiki, V. A. and E. Strogyloudi. 1999. Survey of metal levels in common fish species from Greek waters. Sci. Total Environ. 237: 387–400.

Czech., A. K. and Stachyra. 2013. Effect of processing treatments (frozen, frying) on contents of minerals in tissues of “frutti di mare.” Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 48(2): 238–245.

Domingo, J. L., A. Bocio, R. Martí-Cid and J. M. Llobet. 2006. Benefits and risks of fish consumption. Toxicol. 230(2–3): 227–233.

Duysak, Ö. and E. Uğurlu. 2017. Metal accumulations in different tissues of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis L., 1758) in the Eastern Mediterranean coasts of Turkey. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 24(10): 9614–9623.

Ersoy, B. and A. Özeren. 2009. The effect of cooking methods on mineral and vitamin contents of African catfish. Food Chem. 115(2): 419–422.

European Commission (EC). 2006. EC Regulation No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. OJEU L 364: 5-24.

European Commission (EC). 2008. EC Regulation No 629/2008 of 2 July 2008 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. OJEU L 173, 6–9.

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) 2006. Tolerable upper intake levels for vitamins and minerals
from: https://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/efsa_rep/blobserver_assets/ndatolerableuil.pdf

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) 2017. Overview on dietary reference values for the EU population as derived by the EFSA panel on dietetic products, nutrition and allergies.
from: https://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/assets/DRV_Summary_tables_jan_17.pdf

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). 2010. Scientific Opinion on Lead in Food. Lead, occurrence, dietary exposure, food consumption, risk assessment, adults, children, margin of exposure. EFSA Journal, 8(4), 1570
from https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/1570

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). 2011. Scientific opinion. Statement on tolerable weekly intake for cadmium
from: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/1975.pdf.

Förstner, U. and G. T. W. Whittmann. 1981. Metal Pollution in the Aquatic Environment. 2nd Edition. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 486. (Vol. 84).
from http://ir.obihiro.ac.jp/dspace/handle/10322/3933

Galitsopoulou, A., D. Georgantelis and M. G. Kontominas. 2013. Effect of thermal processing and canning on cadmium and lead levels in California market squid: The role of metallothioneins. Food Addit. Contam. Part A Chem. Anal. Control. Expo. Risk Assess. 30(11): 1900–1908.

Gladieux, L. and W. Swail. 1998. Postsecondary education: Student success, not just access. The Forgotten Half Revisited, 101–114.
from: http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Gladieux+Swail&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C6#4

International Standards Organization (ISO) 937:1978 2018. Meat and meat products. Determination of nitrogen content
from: https://www.iso.org/standard/5356.html

International Standards Organization (ISO) 1442:1997 2018. Meat and meat products. Determination of moisture content
from: https://www.iso.org/standard/6037.html

International Standards Organization (ISO) 1443:1973 2016. Meat and meat products. Determination of total fat content
from: https://www.iso.org/standard/6038.html

International Standards Organization (ISO) 11885:2007 2016. Water quality. Determination of selected elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)
from: https://www.iso.org/standard/36250.html

Jaishankar, M., T. Tseten, N. Anbalagan, B. B. Mathew and K. N. Beeregowda. 2014. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdiscip. Toxicol. 7(2:, 60–72.

Jiao, Y., J. Chen, W. Li, Y. Liu, C. Xin and L. Yang. 2018. Trace elements concentrations in squids consumed in Shandong Province China and their associated risks to the human health. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 128(16997): 267–274.

Kalogeropoulos, N., S. Karavoltsos, A. Sakellari, S. Avramidou, M. Dassenakis and M. Scoullos. 2012. Heavy metals in raw, fried and grilled Mediterranean finfish and shellfish. Food Chem. Toxicol. 50(10): 3702–3708.

Kilgour, B. W. 1991. Cadmium uptake from cadmium-spiked sediments by four freshwater invertebrates. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 47(1): 70–75.

Leblanc, J. C., T. Guérin, L. Noël, G. Calamassi-Tran, J. L. Volatier and P. Verger. 2005. Dietary exposure estimates of 18 elements from the 1st French Total Diet Study. Food Addit. Contam. 22(7): 624–641.

Llobet, J. M., G. Falcó, C. Casas, A. Teixidó and J. L. Domingo. 2003. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in common foods and estimated daily intake by children, adolescents, adults, and seniors of Catalonia, Spain. J. Agri. Food Chem. 51(3): 838–842.

Mendil, D. and Ö. D. Uluözlü. 2007. Determination of trace metal levels in sediment and five fish species from lakes in Tokat, Turkey. Food Chemistry, 101(2), 739–745.

Ouédraogo, O. and M. Amyot. 2011. Effects of various cooking methods and food components on bioaccessibility of mercury from fish. Environ. Res. 111(8): 1064–1069.

Pastorelli, A. A., M. Baldini, P. Stacchini, G. Baldini, S. Morelli, E. Sagratella, S. Zaza and S. Ciardullo. 2012. Human exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury through fish and seafood product consumption in Italy: a pilot evaluation. Food Addit. Contam. Part A Chem. Anal. Control. Expo. Risk Assess. 29(12): 1913–1921.

Perello, G., R. Martí-Cid, J. M. Llobet and J. L. Domingo. 2008. Effects of various cooking processes on the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in foods. J. Agri. Food Che. 56(23): 11262–11269.

Smith, A. H., E. O. Lingas and M. Rahman. 2000. Contamination of Drinking Water by Arsenic in Bangladesh : A Public Health Emergency. Contamination of drinking-water by arsenic in Bangladesh : a public health emergency. WHO Bullet.78(August 2016): 1093.

Storelli, M. M. 2008. Potential human health risks from metals (Hg, Cd, and Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) via seafood consumption: Estimation of target hazard quotients (THQs) and toxic equivalents (TEQs). Food Chem. Toxicol. 46(8): 2782–2788.

Storelli, M. M., G. Barone and G. O. Marcotrigiano. 2005. Cadmium in cephalopod molluscs: implications for public health. Journal of Food Protection, 68(3), 577–580.

Storelli, M. M., G. Normanno, G. Barone, A. Dambrosio, L. Errico, R. Garofalo and R. Giacominelli-Stuffler. 2012. Toxic Metals (Hg, Cd, and Pb) in Fishery Products Imported into Italy: Suitability for Human Consumption. J. Food Protec. 75(1): 189–194.

Torres-Arreola, W., V. M. Ocaño-Higuera, J. M. Ezquerra-Brauer, B. E. López-Corona, F. Rodríguez-Felix, R. Castro-Longoria and H. E. Ramírez-Guerra. 2018. Effect of cooking on physicochemical and structural properties of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) muscle. J. Food Process. Preserv. 42(2): 1–8.

Vilizzi, L. and A. S. Tarkan. 2016. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption. Environ. Monit. Assess., 188(4): 243.

World Health Organization (WHO). 2003. Summary and Conclusions of the 61st Meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives JECFA/61/sc, Rome, Italy, 10–19 June, 2003.

Younis, A. M., H. F. Amin, A. Alkaladi and Y. Y. I. Mosleh. 2015. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Fish, Squids and Crustaceans from the Red Sea, Jeddah Coast, Saudi Arabia. Open J. Mar. Sci 5(04): 369–378.

Zabik, M. E., M. J. Zabik, A. M. Booren, S. Daubenmire, M. A. Pascall, R. Welch and H. Humphrey. 1995. Pesticides and total polychlorinated biphenyls residues in raw and cooked walleye and white bass harvested from the great lakes. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 54(3): 396–402.
238 Views | 242 Downloads
How to Cite
Fernández, F., and C. L. and S. Bañón. “Mineral Composition of Raw and Marinated-Cooked Arms from Pacific Giant Squid (Dosidicus Gigas).”. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 33, no. 1, Jan. 2021, pp. 20-28, doi:https://doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.2021.v33.i1.2355. Accessed 29 Nov. 2022.
Research Article