Protein and carbohydrate fractions of common vetch-oat mixtures depending on stage of growth and seeding rate in the mixtures

  • Jordan Marković Institute for forage crops Kruševac, 37251 Globoder, Kruševac, R Serbia
  • Tanja Vasić University of Niš, Faculty of agriculture Kruševac, Kosančićeva 4, 37000 Kruševac, R Serbia
  • Dragan Terzić University of Niš, Faculty of agriculture Kruševac, Kosančićeva 4, 37000 Kruševac, R Serbia
  • Ratibor Štrbanović Institute for plant protection and environmental, Teodora Drajzera 9, 11040 Belgrade, R Serbia
  • Jasmina Knežević University of Priština, Faculty of agriculture, Lešak, 38219 Lešak, R Serbia
  • Milomir Blagojević Agricultural Combine “Zlatibor”, 31315 Zlatibor, R Serbia
  • Đorđe Lazarević Institute for forage crops Kruševac, 37251 Globoder, Kruševac, R Serbia


The production and utilization of intercropped legume- cereal bi-crops as ruminant feeds is beneficial for many reasons – legumes are rich in terms of protein concentration, whereas cereals are characterized by higher carbohydrate contents. To improve utilization of common vetch-oat mixtures as feed in Serbia, the objective of this investigation was to evaluate the crude protein (CP) and carbohydrate (CHO) fractions in these feeds using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) depending on the stage of plant development and seeding rate of common vetch and oat in the mixtures. The experiment was conducted at the experimental field of Institute for forage crops, Kruševac – Serbia, in 2015. The field trial was arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. In this research, pure stands of common vetch and oat, and their seed mixtures (common vetch:oat – 1:1.5; 1:1 and 1:0.5) were studied harvested at three different cutting stages: beginning of vetch flowering – 10% of flowering; forming the first pods on 2/3 vetch plants and forming green seeds in 2/3 pods. The samples were analyzed for protein and carbohydrate fractions according to CNCPS. Stage of growth affected significantly all carbohydrate and protein fractions, except unavailable PC fraction of crude protein which did not change with plant growth and development. The highest protein fraction was intermediately degraded PB2 fraction of crude protein. The highest carbohydrate fraction was available cell wall – CB3 fraction of carbohydrate. According to the results obtained in these investigations, it was concluded that common vetch-oat mixtures varied significantly with respect to their carbohydrate and protein fraction. Due to lower CC fraction, oat was superior feed in terms of total carbohydrates supply to ruminants. Among all investigated mixtures and pure stand of oat and common vetch, it could be conclude that mixture with 1:1 common vetch-oat rate was superior because of higher CA and CB3 fractions of total carbohydrate and the highest PB2 fraction of crude protein.


Alzueta, C., R. Caballero, A. Rebolé, J. Treviňo, and A. Gil. 2001. Crude protein fractions in common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) fresh forage during pod filling. J. Anim. Sci. 79: 2449-2455.
Ansar, M., Z. I. Ahmed, M. A. Malik, M. Nadeem, A. Majeed and B. A. Rischkowsky. 2010. Forage yield and quality potential of winter cereal-vetch mixtures under rainfed conditions. Emir. J. Food Agr. 22 (1): 25-36.
Caballero, C., C. Alzueta, L. T. Ortiz, M. L. Rodriguez, C. Barro and A. Rebolé. 2001. Carbohydrate and protein fractions of fresh and dried common vetch at three maturity stages. Agron. J. 93 (5): 1006-1013.
Caballero, R., E. L. Goicoechea and P. J. Hernaiz. 1995. Forage yields and quality of common vetch and oat sown at varying seeding ratios and seeding rates of vetch. Field Crop Res. 41: 135-140.
Caballero, R. and E. L. Goicoechea. 1986. Utilization of winter cereals as companion crops for common vetch and hairy vetch. In: F. M. Barba and J. M. Abreu (Eds.) Grasslands Facing the Energy Crisis. Proceeding of the eleventh General meeting of the European Grassland Federation. (pp. 379-384). European Grassland Federation.
Das, L. K., S. S. Kundu, D. Kumar and C. Datt. 2015. Fractionation of carbohydrate and protein content of some forage feeds of ruminants for nutritive evaluation. Vet. World. 8 (2): 197-202.
Eastridge, M. L. 2007. Advancements in feeding carbohydrates. WCDS Adv. Dairy Technol. 19: 63-74.
Erol, A., M. Kaplan and M. Kizilsimsek. 2009. Oats (Avena sativa L.)-common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) mixtures grown on a low-input basis for a sustainable agriculture. Trop. Grasslands. 43: 191-196.
Fox, D. G., L. O. Tedeschi, T. P. Tylutki, J. B. Russell, M. E. Van Amburgh, L. E. Chase, A. N. Pell and T. R. Overton. 2004. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model for evaluating herd nutrition and nutrient excretion. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 112: 29-78.
Fox, D. G., C. J. Sniffen, J. D. O'Connor, J. B. Russel and P. J. Van Soest. 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets. III Cattle requirements and diet adequacy. J. Anim. Sci. 70 (11): 3578-3596.
Hall, M. B. and C. Herejk. 2001. Differences in yields of microbial crude protein from in vitro fermentation of carbohydrates. J. Dairy Sci. 84: 2486-2493.
Hall, M. B. 2000. Neutral Detergent – Soluble Carbohydrates. Nutritional Relevance and Analysis. Ed. University of Florida Bulletin 339. US.
Hall, M. B., W. H. Hoover, J. P. Jennings and T. K. M. 1999. A method for partitioning neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates. J. Sci. Food Agric. 79: 2079-2086.
Karagić, Đ., S. Vasiljević, S. Katić, A. Mikić, D. Milić, B. Milošević and N. Dušanović. 2011. Yield and quality of winter common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) haylage depending on sowing method. Biotechn. Anim. Husb. 27 (4): 1585-1594.
Karagić, Đ., S. Katić, V. Mihailović, S. Vasiljević, A. Mikić and D. Milić. 2008. What a seed producer need from a plant breeder. Abstarcts of the Second Grain Legumes Technology Transfer Platform (GL-TTP) Workshop. (pp. 56). Novi Sad.
Karsli, M. A., H. Akdeniz, T. Levendoglu and Ö Terzioglu. 2005. Evaluation of the nutrient content and protein fractions of four different common vetch varieties. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 29: 1291-1297.
Lanzas, C., C. J. Sniffen, S. Seo, L. O. Tedeschi and D. G. Fox. 2007. A revised CNCPS feed carbohydrate fractions scheme for formulating rations for ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 136: 167-190.
Licitra, G., T. M. Hernandez and P. J. Van Soest. 1996. Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 57: 347-358.
Lithourgidis, A. S., I. B. Vasilakoglou, K. V. Dhima, C. A. Dordasa and M. D. Yiakoulaki. 2006. Forage yield and quality of common vetch mixtures with oat and triticale in two seeding ratios. Field Crops Res. 99: 106-113.
Nocek, J. E. and S. Tamminga. 1991. Site of digestion of starch in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows and its effect on milk yield and composition. J. Dairy Sci. 3598-3629.
NRC - National Research Council. 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. Seventh Revised Edition, National Academy Press, Washington, D. C., USA.
Roberts, C. A., K. J. Moore and K. D. Johnson. 1989. Forage quality and yield of wheat-vetch at different stages of maturity and vetch seeding rates. Agron. J. 81: 57-60.
Seven, P. T. and I. H. Cerci. 2006. The effects on nutrient digestibility of hay and silages made in different conditions in lambs. Vet. Arh. 76 (2): 111-117.
Sniffen, C. J., D. J. O’Connor, P. J. Van Soest, D. G. Fox and J. B. Russell. 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets. II: Carbohydrate and protein availability. J. Anim. Sci. 70: 3562-3577.
Thomson, E. F., S. Rihawi and N. Nersoyan. 1990. Nutritive value and yields of some forage legumes and barley harvested as immature herbage, hay and straw in North-West Syria. Exp. Agric. 26: 49-56.
Umunna, N. N., Osuji, P. O., Nsahlai, I. V. 1997. Strategic supplementation of crossbred steers fed forages from cereal-legume cropping systems with cowpea hay. J. Apply Anim. Res. 11 (2): 169-182.
Umunna, N. N., I. V. Nsahlai and P. O. Osuji. 1995. Degradability of forage protein supplements and their effects on the kinetics of digestion and passage. Small Ruminant Res. 17 (2): 145-152.
Van Amburgh, M. E., E. B. Reckttenwald, D. A. Ross, T. R. Overton and L. E. Chase. 2007. Achieving better nitrogen efficiency in lactating dairy cattle: Updating field usable tools to improve nitrogen efficiency. Proceedings of the eighteenth Cornell Nutrition Conference.(pp. 25-38). Syracuse, NY.
Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, NDF and non starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74: 3583-3597.
Zadeh, J. B. and Z. Moradikor. 2013. Ruminal protein degradation and estimation of rumen microbial protein production. Int. J. Adv. Biol. Biomedic. Res. 1 (8): 914-921.