New flavour bars with cherry, almond and honey
Snacks are commonly eaten in western societies and, because of that, have a non-negligible effect on consumers’ health. The main objective of this work was to develop and optimize a snack formulation with sweet cherry, an important crop from the Portuguese region of Beira Interior and which has a Protected Geographical Indication (PGI). The experimental design and the optimization process were based on the Response Surface Methodology. In order to achieve that, a factorial design was implemented with three factors (almond and honey content, and baking time) and five response variables (water activity, antioxidant activity, mesophilic count, flavour and texture), and three repetitions of the central point. The optimization resulted in a formulation with 50 g 100 g-1 of sweet cherry, 35 g 100 g-1 of almond, 15 g 100 g-1 of honey, baked in the oven at 120 ºC for 13 min. The nutritional analysis showed that this product could be labelled with some nutritional claims, such as “low saturated fat”, “with no added sugar”, “salt free” and “source of fibre”.
AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis (17th Ed.). Gaithersburg, Maryland: Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC).
Baltrusaityte, V., P. R. Venskutonis and V. Ceksteryte. 2007. Radical scavenging activity of different floral origin honey and beebread phenolic extracts. Food Chem. 101: 502-514.
Brand-Williams, W., M. Cuvelier C. and Berset. 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT. 28: 25-30.
Bucher, T., C. Collins, S. Diem and M. Siegrist. 2016. Adolescents’ perception of the healthiness of snacks. Food Qual. Prefer. 50: 94-101.
Chaplin, K. and A. Smith. 2011. Definitions and perceptions of snacking. Nutraceutical Res. 9: 53-59.
Chua, L.S., N. L. A. Rahaman, N. A. Adnan and T. T. E. Tan. 2013. Antioxidant activity of three honey samples in relation with their biochemical components. J. Anal. Methods Chem. Article ID 313798.
Du, W., S. J. Abd, L. McCarthy and L. J. Harris. 2010. Reduction of Salmonella on inoculated almonds exposed to hot oil. J. Food Prod. 73: 1238-1246.
EC. 1996. Commission Regulation (EC) nº 1107/96 of 12 June 1996. Official Journal of the European Communities L 148/1.
EC. 2006. Commission Regulation (EC) nº 1924/2006 of 20 December 2006. Official Journal of the European Communities L 404/9.
EU. 2011. Regulation (EU) nº 1169/2011 of 25 October 2011. Official Journal of the European Union nº L 304/18.
Escuredo, O., M. Míguez, M. Fernández-Gonzalez and M. C. Seijo. 2013. Nutritional value antioxidant activity of honeys produced in a European Atlantic area. Food Chem. 138: 851-856.
Ferreira, I. C. F. R., E. Aires, J. C. M. Barreira and L. M. Estevinho. 2009. Antioxidant activity of Portuguese honey samples: different contributions of the entire honey and phenolic extract. Food Chem. 114: 1438-1443.
Gatenby, S. J. 1997. Eating frequency: methodological and dietary aspects. Br. J. Nutr. 77: S7-S20.
Gilbert, R. J., J. Louvois, T. Donovan, C. Little, K. Nye, C. D. Ribeiro, J. Richards, D. Roberts and F. J. Bolton. 2000. Guidelines for the microbiological quality of some ready-to-eat foods sampled at the point of sale. Commun. Dis. Public Health. 3: 163-167.
Green, H., P. Siwajek and A. Roulin. 2017. Use of nutrient profiling to identify healthy versus unhealthy snack foods and whether they can be part of a healthy menu plan. J. Nutr. Intermed. Metab. 9: 1-5.
Guiné, R.P.F., C. F. F. Almeida and P. M. R. Correia. 2014. Effect of packaging and conservation conditions on some physical-chemical properties of almonds. J. Hyg. Eng. Des. 8: 82-87.
ISO 4833-1:2013. 2013. Microbiology of the food chain - Horizontal method for the enumeration of microorganisms. Part 1: Colony count at 30 degrees C by the pour plate technique.
ISO 8589:2007/Amd 1:2014. Sensory analysis. General guidance for the design of test rooms.
Jan, K.N., P. S. Panesar and S. Singh. 2018. Optimization of antioxidant activity, textural and sensory characteristics of gluten-free cookies made from whole Indian quinoa flour. LWT- Food Sci. Technol. 93: 573-582.
Kamil, A. and C. Y. O. Chen. 2012. Health benefits of almonds beyond cholesterol reduction. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60: 6694-6702.
Kant, A. K. and B. I. Graubard. 2015. 40-Year trends in meal and snack eating behaviors of American adults. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 115: 50-63.
Kelley, D. S., Y. Adkins and K. D. Laugero. 2018. A review of the health benefits of cherries. Nutrients. 10.
Kiat, V. V., W. K. Siang, P. Madhavan, J. H. Chin, M. Ahmad and G. A. Akowauah. 2014. FT-IR profile and antiradical activity of dehulled kernels of apricot, almond and pumpkin. Res. J. Pharm. Biol. Chem. Sci. 5: 112-120.
Liu, Y., X. Liu, F. Zhong, R. Tian, K. Zhang, X. Zhang and T. Li. 2011. Comparative study of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in different species of cherries. J. Food Sci. 76: C633-C638.
Liu, Y., L. Luo, C. Liao, L. Chen, J. Wang and L. Zen. 2018. Effects of brewing conditions on the phytochemical composition, sensory qualities and antioxidant activity of green tea infusion: A study using response surface methodology. Food Chem. 269: 24-34.
Lloyd‐Williams, F., M. Mwatsama, R. Ireland and S. Capwell. 2008. Small changes in snacking behaviour: the potential impact on CVD mortality. Public Health Nutr. 12: 871-876.
Mandalari, G., C. Nueno-Palop, G. Bisignano, M. S. J. Wickham and A. Narbad. 2008. Potential prebiotic properties of almond (Amygdalus communis L.) seeds. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74: 4264-4270.
Nath, A. and P. K. Chattopadhyay. 2007. Optimization of oven toasting for improving crispness and other quality attributes of ready to eat potato-soy snack using response surface methodology. J. Food Eng. 80: 1282-1292.
Olaitan, P.B., O. E. Adeleke and I. O. Ola. 2007. Honey: a reservoir for microorganisms and an inhibitory agent for microbes. Afr. Health Sci.7: 65-159.
Pardhi S. D., B. Singh, G. A. Nayik and B. N. Dar. 2017. Evaluation of functional properties of extruded snacks developed from brown rice grits by using response surface methodology. J. Saudi Soc. Agric. Sci. 18: 7-16.
Prvulovic, D., D. Malencic, M. Popovic, M. Ljubojevic and V. Ognjanov. 2011. Antioxidant properties of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) – role of phenolic compounds. World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol. 59: 1149-1152.
Ramesh, R., R. J. Shakil, B. Sivaraman, P. Ganesan and P. Velayutham. 2018. Optimization of the gelatinization conditions to improve the expansion and crispiness of fish crackers using RSM. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 89: 248-254.
Safe Food 360º. 2014. Water activity (aw) in foods. Retrieved on November 11, 2020 from: http://safefood360.com/resources/Water-Activity.pdf.
Schmidt, S. J. and A. J. Fontana. 2007. Water activity values of selected food ingredients and products. In: Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V., A. J. Fontana Jr., S. J. Schmidt and T. P. Labuza (Ed.). Water activity in foods – fundamentals and applications (pp. 407-421). Iowa: Blackwell Publishing.
Tapia, M. S., S. M., Alzamora and J. Chirife. 2007. Effects of water activity (aw) on microbial stability as a hurdle in food preservation. In: Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V., A. J. Fontana Jr., S. J. Schmidt and T. P. Labuza (Ed.). Water activity in foods – fundamentals and applications (pp. 239-272). Iowa: Blackwell Publishing.
Usenik, V., J. Fabcic and F. Stampar. 2008. Sugars, organic acids, phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Food Chem. 107: 185-192.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.