Economic impact of polyherbal mixtures containing choline, lysine and methionine on milk production and health of dairy cows

  • Nora Idolina Ortega Alvarez Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso 1100. Ciudad de México. 04960. México.
  • Germán David Mendoza Martínez Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso 1100. Ciudad de México. 04960. México.
  • Ricardo Barcena Gama Colégio de Postgraduados – Montecillo. Carretera México- Texcoco, Km. 36.5, Texcoco. 56264. Estado de México.
  • Pedro Abel Hernández García Centro Universitario UAEM Amecameca, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, km 2.5.Carretera Amecameca-Ayapango, 56900, Amecameca, México.
  • Enrique Espinosa Ayala Centro Universitario UAEM Amecameca, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, km 2.5.Carretera Amecameca-Ayapango, 56900, Amecameca, México.
  • José Antonio Martínez García Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso 1100. Ciudad de México. 04960. México.
  • Adrian Gloria Trujillo Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso 1100. Ciudad de México. 04960. México.


The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of supplementing dairy cows with mixtures of polyherbal products supplying conjugates of choline (BioCholine, BC), lysine (OptiLysine, L) and methionine (OptiMethionine, M), considering the costs of veterinary treatments, the nutraceutical effects of the mixtures, the partial cost and returns of milk production. Eighty postpartum Holstein cows were randomly assigned to individually receive. The pellets no containing (Control, 20 cows) and containing polyherbal products (g/d) (BC20, 19 cows; BC40, 17 cows; BC20+L40+M20, 12 cows, and BC40+L80+M40, 12 cows) were offered to cows during the milking through automatic feeders in the course of 90 days in a commercial farm. Treatment costs were grouped in terms of antibiotics, healing, anti-inflammatories, glucogenics, hormonal, intra-mammary treatments, restorative and vitamins. Milk production was not affected (P>0.05) by polyherbal additives but there were numerical differences in the number of treatments and costs; animal health cost per cow showed a high variation coefficient (average 347%). Cows receiving BC40 and BC20+L40+M20 had reduced animal health cost per cow but only the treatment BC40 showed residual effects post experiment with an economic improvement of 2.1% over the control group, showing benefits associated to a reduction in the number of doses with antibiotics and doses of immune-stimulants. Cows receiving BC40 had the best milk yield numerically in combination with the lower number of animal health costs which resulted in the highest income.


Akturk, D., Z. Bayramoğlu, F. Savran and F. F. Tatlidil. 2010. The factors affecting milk production and milk production cost. Kafkas Univ. Vet. Fak. Der. 16: 329-335.
Antanaitis, R., V. Žilaitis, A. Kučinskas, V. Juozaitienė and K. Leonauskaitė. 2015. Changes in cow activity, milk yield, and milk conductivity before clinical diagnosis of ketosis, and acidosis. Vet. Med. Zoot. 70: 3-9.
Awawdeh, M. S. 2016. Rumen-protected methionine and lysine: effects on milk production and plasma amino acids of dairy cows with reference to metabolizable protein status. J. Dairy Res. 83: 151-155.
Cañada, L. M. G., E. Meráz-Romero, G. D. Mendoza-Martínez, B. Villagrán-Vélez and D. A. Castillo-Mata. 2018. Efecto del nivel de colina herbal en la producción y composición de leche en ganado lechero en pastoreo. Arch. Latinoam. Prod. Anim. 26: 82.
Capuco, A. V., S. E. Ellis, S. A. Hale, E. Long, R. A. Erdman, X. Zhao and M. J. Paape. 2003. Lactation persistency: Insights from mammary cell proliferation studies. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl. 3): 18–31.
Cha, E., D. Bar, J. A. Hertl, L. W. Tauer, G. Bennett, R. N. González, Y. H. Schukken, F. L. Welcome and Y. T. Gröhn. 2011. The cost and management of different types of clinical mastitis in dairy cows estimated by dynamic programming. J. Dairy Sci. 94: 4476–4487.
Cho, J., T. R. Overton, C. G. Schwab and L. W. Tauer. 2007. Determining the amount of rumen-protected methionine supplement that corresponds to the optimal levels of methionine in metabolizable protein for maximizing milk protein production and profit on dairy farms. J. Dairy Sci. 90: 4908-4916.
Cinquina, A. L., F. Longo, G. Anastasi, L. Giannetti and R. Cozzani. 2003. Validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline and doxycycline in bovine milk and muscle. J. Chromatogr. A. 987(1-2): 227-233.
Dalcq, A. C., Y. Beckers, P. Mayeres and E. Reding. 2017. The feeding system impacts relationships between calving interval and economic results of dairy farms. Animal. 12: 1662-1671.
Das, P. K., M. R. Das, K. C. Acharya and S. K. Ray. 2003. Evaluation of herbal immuno-stimulant "Immu-21" in prevention and treatment of bovine clinical mastitis. Phytomedica. 4: 13-20.
De Veth, M. J., V. M. Artegoitia, S. R. Campagna, H. Lapierre, F. Harte and C. L. Girard. 2016. Choline absorption and evaluation of bioavailability markers when supplementing choline to lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 99: 9732-9744.
De Vries, A. 2006. Economic Value of Pregnancy in Dairy Cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 89(19): 3876-3885.
Dubey, M., V. P. Singh, R. K. Pandey and A. K. Chaubey. 2017. Economic analysis of feeding management and milk production at the university dairy farm. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 6: 480-486.
Dyaa, E. D. A. M., B. E. Borhami, K. A. El-Shazly and M. A. Sallam. 2013. Effect of dietary supplementation with fibrolytic enzymes on the productive performance of early lactating dairy cows. J. Agric. Sci. 5: 146-155.
Esatbeyoglu, T., K. Ulbrich, C. Rehberg, S. Rohn and G. Rinbach. 2015. Thermal stability, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin and its degradation product 4-vinyl guaiacol. Food Funct. 6: 887-893.
Fa-Liang, A., S. Dong-Mei, L. Rui-Jun, Z. Miao-Miao, Y. Ming-Hua, Y. Yong, K. Ling-Yi and L. Jun. 2017. Walrobsins A and B, wo anti-inflammatory limonoids from root barks of Walsura robusta. Org. Lett. 19: 4568-4571.
Da Fonseca, L. F. L., P. H. Mazza-Rodrigues, M. Veiga-dos Santos, A. Pinto-Lima and C. de Souza-Lucci. 2004. Supplementation of dairy cows with propylene glycol during the periparturient period: effects on body condition score, milk yield, first estrus post-partum, beta-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and glucose concentrations. Cienc. Rural. 34(3): 897-903.
Frankič, T., M. Voljč, J. Salobir and V. Rezar. 2009. Use of herbs and spices and their extracts in animal nutrition. Acta Agric. Slov. 94: 95-102.
Ghule, A., N. K. Verma, A. K. Cahuhan and P. D. Sawale. 2012. An economic analysis of investment pattern cost of milk production and profitability of commercial dairy farms in maharashtra. Indian J. Dairy Sci. 65(4): 329-336.
Godínez-Cruz, J., O. Cifuentes-Lopez, J. Cayetano, H. Lee-Rangel, G. Mendoza, A. Vazquez and A. Roque. 2015. Effect of choline inclusion on lamb performance and meat characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 93:766.
Gutiérrez, A. R., A. Gutiérrez, C. Sánchez and G. D. Mendoza. 2019. Effect of including herbal choline in the diet of a dairy herd; a multiyear evaluation. Emir. J. Food Agric. 31(6): 477-481.
Halasa, T., K. Huips, O. Østerås and H. Hogeveen. 2007. Economic effects of bovine mastitis and mastitis management: a review. Vet. Q. 29: 18-31.
Huijps, K., T. J. Lam and H. Hogeveen. 2008. Costs of mastitis: facts and perception. J. Dairy Res. 75(1): 113-120.
Jouany, J. P. and D. P. Morgavi. 2007. Use of ‘natural’ products as alternatives to antibiotic feed additives in ruminant production. Animal. 1: 1443-1466.
Kirchhelle, C. 2018. Pharming animals: a global history of antibiotics in food production (1935–2017). Palgrave Commun. 4:96.
Kolling, G. J., S. C. B. Stivanin, A. M. Gabbi, F. S. Machado, A. L. Ferreira, M. M. Campos, T. R. Tomich, C. S. Cunha, S. W. Dill, L. G. R. Pereira and V. Fischer. 2018. Performance and methane emissions in dairy cows fed oregano and green tea extracts as feed additives. J. Dairy Sci. 101: 4221-4234.
Kupke, I. R. and S. Zeugner. 1978. Quantitative high-performance thin-layer chromatography of lipids in plasma and liver homogenates after direct application of 0.5-microliter samples to the silica-gel layer. J. Chromatogr. 46(2): 261-71.
Lara, A., G. D. Mendoza, L. Landois, R. Barcena, M. T. Sánchez-Torres, R. Rojo, J. Ayala and S. Vega. 2006. Milk production in Holstein cows supplemented with different levels of ruminally protected methionine. Livest. Sci. 105: 105-108.
Lejonklev, J., U. Kidmose, S. Jensen, M. A. Petersen, A. L. F. Helwing, G. Mortensen, M. R. Weisbjerg and M. K. Larsen. 2016. Short communication: effect of oregano and caraway essential oils on the production and flavor of cow milk. J. Dairy Sci. 99: 7898-7903.
Lima, F. S., M. F. Sá Filho, L. F. Greco and J. E. P. Santos. 2012. Effects of feeding rumen-protected choline on incidence of diseases and reproduction of dairy cows. Vet. J. 193: 140-145.
Martínez-Aispuro, J. A., G. D. Mendoza, J. L. Cordero-Mora, M. A. Ayala-Monter, M. T. Sánchez-Torres, J. L. Figueroa-Velasco, G. Vázquez-Silva and A. Gloria-Trujillo. 2019. Evaluation of an herbal choline feed plant additive in lamb feedlot rations. R. Bras. Zootec. 48: 20190020.
Mendoza, G. D., M. F. Oviedo, J. M. Pinos, H. A. Lee-Rangel, A. Vázquez, R. Flores, F. Pérez, A. Roque and O. Cifuentes. 2020. Milk production in dairy cows supplemented with herbal choline and methionine. Rev. Fac. UNCUYO. 52(1): 332-343.
Mohsen, M. K., H. M. A. Gaafar, M. M. Khalafalla, A. A. Shitta and A. M. Yousif. 2011. Effect of rumen protected choline supplementation on digestibility, rumen activity and milk yield in lactating Friesian cows. Slovak J. Anim. Sci. 44(1): 13-20.
Mushtaq, S. A. M. Shah, A. Shah, S. A. Lone, A. Hussain, Q. P. Hassan and M. N. Ali. 2018. Bovine mastitis: an appraisal of its alternative herbal cure. Microb. Pathog. 114: 357-361.
Nebel, R.L., C. M. Jones and Z. Roth. 2011. Reproduction, Events and Management Mating Management: Detection of Estrus. In Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences. Fuquay, J.W. Ed. Second Edition. (pp. 461-466) Academic Press.
Oltenacu, P. A. and D. M. Broom. 2010. The impact of genetic selection for increased milk yield on the welfare of dairy cows. Anim. Welf. 19: 39-49.
Ordway, R. and G. Aines. 2010. Feeding lysine: a nutritionist and dairy producer’s perspective. High plains dairy conference (pp. 109 -116). Amarillo: Texas.
Patton, R. A. 2010. Effect of rumen-protected methionine on feed intake, milk production, true milk protein concentration, and true milk protein yield, and the factors that influence these effects: a meta-analysis. J. Dairy Sci. 93: 2105-2118.
Pinotti, L., C. Polidori, A. Campagnoli, V. Dell’Orto and A. Baldi. 2010. A meta-analysis of the effects of rumen protected choline supplementation on milk production in dairy cows. Eaap Sci. Ser. 127: 321-322.
Reshi, I. A., T. K. Sarkar, H. Malik, A. Muhee and S. Shoukat. 2017. Efficacy of Fumaria indica, Nepata cataria and Adianthum capillus crude aqueous extracts in comparison to cefuroxime in sub-clinical cases of bovine mastitis. Int. J. Livest. Res. 7: 100-107.
Richard, C., E. D. Lewis, Z. Yuan-Yuan, J. Asomaning, R. L. Jacobs, C. J. Field and J. M. Curtis. 2016. Measurement of the total choline content in 48 commercial dairy products or dairy alternatives. J. Food Compos. Anal. 45: 1-8.
Rodríguez-Guerrero, V., A. C. Lizarazo, S. FerraroI, N. Suárez, L. A. Miranda and G. D. Mendoza. 2018. Effect of herbal choline and rumen-protected methionine on lamb performance and blood metabolites. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 48: 427-434.
Rollin, E., K. C. Dhuyvetter and M. W. Overton. 2015. The cost of clinical mastitis in the first 30 days of lactation: An economic modeling tool. Prev. Vet. Med. 122(3): 257-264.
Rulquin, H., C. Hurtaud and L. Delaby. 1994. Effects of graded levels of rumen-protected lysine on milk production in dairy cows. Ann. Zootech. 43: 246.
Rutten, C. J., A. G. J. Velthuis, W. Steeneveld and H. Hogeveen. 2013. Invited review: sensors to support health management on dairy farms. J. Dairy Sci. 96: 1928-1952.
Sales, J., P. Homolka and V. Koukolová. 2010. Effect of dietary rumen-protected choline on milk production of dairy cows: a meta-analysis. J. Dairy Sci. 93: 3746-3754.
Górecki, S. T. and Ł. Smaga. 2019. fdANOVA: An R software package for analysis of variance for univariate and multivariate functional data. Comput. Stat. 34:571–597.
Seegers, H., C. Fourichon and F. Beaudeau. 2003. Production effects related to mastitis and mastitis economics in dairy cattle herds. Vet. Res. 34: 475-491.
Shafi, T. A., B. K. Bansal, D. K. Gupta and A. Nayyar. 2016. Evaluation of immunotherapeutic potential of Ocimum sanctum in bovine subclinical mastitis. Turkish J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 40: 352-358.
Sun, F., Y. Cao, C. Cai, S. Li, C. Yu and J. Yao. 2016. Regulation of nutritional metabolism in transition dairy cows: energy homeostasis and health in response to post-ruminal choline and methionine. PLos One. 11(8): e0160659.
Szkudzińska, K., I. Smutniak, J. Rubaj, W. Korol and G. Bielecka. 2017. Method validation for determination of amino acids in feed by UPLC. Accred. Qual. Assur. 22: 247–252.
Tatlidil, F. F. and D. Aktürk. 2009. Comparative analysis of dairy cattle-breeding farms on member and non-member of breeders association. Agric. Syst. 4: 36-40.
Türkyilmaz, M. K. and S. Aral. 2002. Efficiency of resource usage in dairy herds aydin province and their marketing and organizational problems. Kafkas Univ. Vet. Med. J. 8: 41-48.
Vailati-Riboni, M., Z. Zhou, C. B. Jacometo, A. Minuti, E. Trevisi, D. N. Luchini and J. J. Loor. 2017. Supplementation with rumen-protected methionine or choline during the transition period influences whole-blood immune response in periparturient dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 100: 3958-3968.
Walkenhorst, M., F. Leiber, A. Maeschli, A. Kapp, A. Spengler‐Neff, M. Faleschini, E. Garo, M. Hamburger, O. Potterat, P. Mayer, S. Graf‐Schiller and A. Bieber. 2020. A multicomponent herbal feed additive improves somatic cell counts in dairy cows ‐ a two stage, multicentre, placebo‐controlled long‐term on‐farm trial. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 104(2): 439-452.
272 Views | 165 Downloads
How to Cite
Alvarez, N. I. O., G. D. M. Martínez, R. B. Gama, P. A. H. García, E. E. Ayala, J. A. M. García, and A. G. Trujillo. “Economic Impact of Polyherbal Mixtures Containing Choline, Lysine and Methionine on Milk Production and Health of Dairy Cows”. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 32, no. 12, Nov. 2020, pp. 864-70, doi: Accessed 2 Aug. 2021.
Research Article