Toxicologic evaluation of chronic feeding of glyphosate-resistant transgenic soybean GTS40-3-2 meal to rats
To assess the safety of glyphosate-resistant transgenic soybean, the transgenic soybean GTS40-3-2 meal and its non-transgenic counterpart parent A5403 were fed to first- and second-generation Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (Rattus norvegicus) for 195 days. The soybean meal made up 20% of the total weight of the feed. Body weight, food consumption, hematology, blood biochemistry, and pathological observations were monitored weekly. The results showed that rats of each group experienced good growth and development, and although results of some organ weight ratios and serum biochemistry between the groups were significantly different (P<0.05), they were of no biological significance because the variations were within the normal range. These results indicate that glyphosate-resistant transgenic soybean GTS40-3-2 meal is as safe as its non-transgenic parent soybean A5403 in a long-term SD rat feeding study. The study provides experimental evidence for the safe usage of transgenic soybean GTS40-3-2.
Bakhsh, A. and T. Hussain. 2015. Engineering crop plants against abiotic stress: Current achievements and prospects. Emir. J. Food Agric. 27(1): 24-39.
Chinese Standard GB14924.3-2010. Experimental animal (mice and rat) feeds. Standards Press of China, Beijing, China.
Chinese Standard GB15193.13-2003. The Chinese toxicology assessment procedures and methods for food safety. Standards Press of China, Beijing, China.
Chinese Standard GB/T5009.6-2003. Method for determination of fat in foods. Standards Press of China, Beijing, China.
Chinese Standard GB GB/T5009.8-2008. Method for determination of dietary fiber in foods. Standards Press of China, Beijing, China.
Chinese Standard GB/T5009.3-2010. Method for determination of moisture in foods. Standards Press of China, Beijing, China.
Chinese Standard GB/T5009.4-2010. Method for determination of ash in foods. Standards Press of China, Beijing, China.
Chinese Standard GB/T5009.5-2010. Method for determination of protein in foods. Standards Press of China, Beijing, China.
Chukwudebe, A., L. Privalle, A. Reed, C. Wandelt, D. Contri, M. Dammann, S. Groeters, U. Kaspers, V. Strauss and B. van Ravenzwaay. 2012. Health and nutritional status of Wistar rats following subchronic exposure to CV127 soybeans. Food Chem. Toxicol. 50: 956-971.
Dryzga, M. D., B. L. Yano, A. K. Andrus and J. L. Mattsson. 2007. Evaluation of the safety and nutritional equivalence of a genetically modified cottonseed meal in a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45: 1994-2004.
Duke, S. O. 2005. Taking stock of herbicide-resistant crops ten years after introduction. Pest Manag. Sci. 61: 211-218.
FAO. 1996. Biotechnology and food safety. Report of a joint FAO/WHO consultation. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 61, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
FAO/WHO. 2000. Safety aspects of genetically modified foods of plant origin. Report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation on foods derived from biotechnology, Geneva, Switzerland, 29 May-2 June 2000, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
Han, J. H., Y. X. Yang, S. R. Chen, Z. Wang, X. L. Yang, G. D. Wang and J. H. Men. 2005. Comparison of nutrient composition of parental rice and rice genetically modified with cowpea trypsin inhibitor. China J. Food Compos. Anal. 18(4): 297-302.
He, X. Y., K. L. Huang, X. Li, W. Qin, B. Delaney and Y. B. Luo. 2008. Comparison of grain from corn rootworm resistant transgenic DAS-59122-7 maize with nontransgenic maize grain in a 90-day feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 46: 1994-2002.
He, X. Y., M. Z. Tang, Y. B. Luo, X. Li and S. S. Cao. 2009. A 90-day toxicology study of transgenic lysine-rich maize grain (Y642) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 47: 425-432.
Huang, D. F. 2015. Review of transgenic crop breeding in China. Chin. J. Biotech. 31(6): 892-900.
James, C. 2013. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2013. ISAAA Brief No. 46. Ithaca, NY: ISAAA, 2013.
James, C. 2015. Global status of commercialized Biotech/GM crops: 2014. China Biotech. 35(1): 1-14.
Kilic, A. and M. T. Akay. 2008. A three-generation study with genetically modified Bt corn in rats: Biochemical and histopathological investigation. Food Chem. Toxicol. 6: 1164-1170.
Kroghsbo, S., C. Madsen, M. Poulsen, M. Schrøder, P. H. Kvist, M. Taylor, A. Gatehouse, Q. Shu and I. Knudsen. 2008. Immunotoxicological studies of genetically modified rice expressing PHA-E lectin or Bt toxin in Wistar rats. Toxicology. 245: 24-34.
Lu, C. B., J. Cai, Q. L. Qi and Y. Y. Wei. 2014. Effects of glyphosate-resistant transgenic soybean on male mice testis. J. Jinan Univ. (Natural Science & Medicine Edition) 35(3): 245-259.
Noteborn, H. P. J. M., M. E. Bienenmann-Ploum, J. H. J. van den Berg, G. M. Alink, L. Zolla, A. Reynaerts, M. Pensa and H. A. Kuiper. 1995. Safety assessment of the Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein CRYIA(b) expressed in transgenic tomatoes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 12: 134-147.
OECD. 1993. Safety Evaluation of Foods Produced by Modern Biotechnology, Concepts and Principles. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France.
OECD. 1996. Food Safety Evaluation. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Paris, France.
OECD. 1997. Report of the OECD Workshop on the Toxicological and Nutritional Testing of Novel Foods. Aussois, France, 5-8 March 1997. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Paris, France.
Park, S. Y., S. M. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Ko, S. J. Kweon, S. C. Suh, K. S. Shin and J. K. Kim. 2012. Compositional comparative analysis between insect-resistant rice (Oryza sativa L.) with a synthetic Cry1Ac gene and its non-transgenic counterpart. Plant Biotechnol. Rep. 6: 29-37.
Poulsen, M., S. Kroghsbo, M. Schrøder, A. Wilcks, H. Jacobsen, A. Miller, T. Frenzel, J. Danier, M. Rychlik, Q. Shu, K. Emami, D. Sudhakar, A. Gatehouse, K. H. Engel and I. Knudsen. 2007. A 90-day safety study in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA). Food Chem. Toxicol. 245(3): 350-363.
Sissener, N. H., A. M. Bakke, J. Gu, M. H. Penn, E. Eie, Å. Krogdahl, M. Sanden and G. I. Hemre. 2009. An assessment of organ and intestinal histomorphology and cellular stress response in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed genetically modified Roundup Ready® soy. Aquaculture. 298: 101-110.
Wang, E. H., Z. Yu, J. Hu and H. B. Xu. 2013. Effects of 90-day feeding of transgenic Bt rice TT51 on the reproductive system in male rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 62: 390-396.
WHO. 1991. Strategies for assessing the safety of foods produced by biotechnology. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Consultation. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
WHO. 1995. Application of the principles of substantial equivalence to the safety evaluation of foods and food components from plants derived from modern biotechnology. Report of a WHO Workshop. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Zhang, W. and F. Shi. 2011. Do genetically modified crops affect animal reproduction? A review of the ongoing debate. Animal. 5(7): 1048-1059.
Zhou, X. H., Y. Dong, X. Xiao, Y. Wang, Y. Xu, B. Xu, W. D. Shi, Y. Zhang, L. J. Zhu and Q. Q. Liu. 2011. A 90-day toxicology study of high-amylose transgenic rice grain in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 49: 3112-3118.
Zhou, X. H., Y. Dong, Y. Wang, X. Xiao, Y. Xu, B. Xu, X. Li, X. S. Wei and Q. Q. Liu. 2012. A three generation study with high-lysine transgenic rice in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 50: 1902-1910.
Zhu, Y, X., X. Y. He, Y. B. Luo, S. Y. Zou, X. Zhou, K. L. Huang and W. T. Xu. 2013. A 90-day feeding study of glyphosate-tolerant maize with the G2-aroA gene in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 51: 280-287