Bread quality improvement by means of selected pregelatinized waxy rice flour (PWRF)
The objective of the present study was attempted to develop a pregelatinized waxy rice flour (PWRF) retarding agent formulation by merging with α-amylase and monoglycerides, as well as using pregelatinizing and lyophilizing technologies to improve bread characteristics such as staling and retrogradation. The major methods, including texture profile analysis (TPA) and sensory evaluation were employed to assess bread qualities. Research results demonstrated the amylose complexing index (ACI) of the PWRF-adding bread samples were higher than that of groups α-amylase-adding, monoglycerides-adding and control. PWRF-adding bread samples exhibited higher starch digestibility and water activity (aw) and showed softer texture, lower hardness and soluble starch content than the groups α-amylase-adding, monoglycerides-adding and control after storage. The PWRF-D exhibited the best effect among all formulations. Further, either fresh or after storage PWRF-adding bread samples acquired the higher sensory score. The bread qualities were improved by PWRF and the staling and retrogradation were further retarded.
AOAC. 1990. Method 925.09, In: Official methods of analysis, 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.
Berglund, P. T and D. R. Shelton. 1993. Effect of frozen storage duration on firming properties of breads baked from frozen doughs. Cereal Foods World, 38(2): 89-90, 92-93.
Caballero, P. A., Gómez, M and C. M. Rosell. 2007. Improvement of dough rheology, bread quality and bread shelf-life by enzymes combination. J. Food Eng. 81(1): 42-53.
Curti, E., Carini, E., Diantom, A and E. Vittadini. 2016. The use of potato fibre addition in bread contributed to reduce bread staling. Food Chem. 195: 64-70.
Curti, E., Carini, E., Tribuzio, G and E. Vittadini. 2014. Bread staling: Effect of gluten on physico-chemical properties and molecular mobility. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 59(1): 418-425.
Czuchajowska, Z and Y. Pomeranz. 1989. Differential scanning calorimetry, water activity and moisture contents in crumb center and near-curst zones of bread during storage. Cereal Chem. 66(4): 305-310.
Del-Rosario, R. R and C. R. Pontiveros. 1983. Retrogradation of some starch mixtures. Starch/Stärke, 35(3): 86-92.
Fiszman, S. M., Pons, M and M. H. Damasio. 1998. New parameters for instrumental texture profile analysis: instantaneous and retarded recoverable springiness. J. Food Text. Stud. 29(5): 499-508.
Giannone. V., Lauro, M. R., Spina, A., Pasqualone, A., Auditore, L., Puglisi, I and G. Puglisi. 2016. A novel α-amylase-lipase formulation as anti-staling agent in durum wheat bread. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 65, 381-389.
Gómez, M., Ronda, F., Caballero, P. A., Blanco, A and C. M. Rosell. 2007. Functionality of different hydrocolloids on the quality and shelf-life of yellow layer cakes. Food Hydrocol. 21(2): 167-173.
Hibi, Y. 2001. Effects of selected surfactants on amylopectin recrystallization and on recoverability of bread crumb during storage. Starch/Stärke. 53(5): 227-234.
Holm, J., Björck, I., Asp, N.G., Siöberg, L. B and I. Lundguist. 1985. Starch availability in vivo after flaking, steam-cooking and popping of wheat. J. Cereal Sci. 3(3): 193-206.
Huang, R. M., Tsiang, J. M and C. Y. Lii. 1988. The effect of sodium stearoyl 2-lactylateon the staling rate of Fon-Pen cake. Food Sci. 15(3): 287-295. (in Chinese with English abstract, Taiwan).
Jeang, C. L., Wu, S. J and T. C. Lin. 1990. Effects of treatments of different additive on the texture of frozen rice curd. J. Agric. For. 39(2): 145-155. (in Chinese with English abstract, Taiwan).
Ji, Y., Zhu, K., Qian, H and H. Zhou. 2007. Staling of cake prepared from rice flour and sticky rice flour. Food Chem. 104(1): 53-58.
Keetels, C. J. A. M., Van-Vliet, T., Jurgens, A and P. Walstra. 1996. Effects of lipid surfactants on the structure and mechanics of concentrated starch gels and starch bread. Journal of Cereal Sci. 24(1): 33-45.
Kim, S. K and B. L. D’Appolonia. 1977. Bread staling studies. II. Effect of protein content and storage temperature on the role of starch. Cereal Chem. 54: 216-219.
Krog, N., Olesen, S. K., Tørnæs, H and T. Jønsson. 1989. Retrogradation of the starch fraction in wheat bread. Cereal Foods World. 34(3): 281-285.
Kulp, K and Ponte, J. G. 1981. Staling of a white pan bread: fundamental causes. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 15(1): 1-48.
Kweon, M. R., Park, C. S., Auh, B. M., Yang, N. S and K. H. Park. 1994. Phospholipid hydrolysate and ,antistaling amylase effects on retrogradation of starch in bread. J. Food Sci. 59(5): 1072-1076.
Lapčík, L., Vašina, M., Lapčíková, B and T. Valenta. 2016. Study of bread staling by means of vibro-acoustic, tensile and thermal analysis techniques. J. Food Eng. 178: 31-38.
Maleki, M., Vetter, J. L and W. J. Hoover. 1981. The effect of emulsifiers, sugars, shortening and soya flour on the staling of barbari flat bread. J. Sci. Food Agr. 32(12): 1209-1211.
Matsukura, U., Matsunaga, A and K. Kainuma. 1983. Structural studies of the retrogradation of gelatinized starch. J. Jap. Soc. Starch Sci. 30(1): 106-109.
Monteau, J. Y., Purlis, E., Besbes, E., Jury, V and A. Le-Bail. 2017. Water transfer in bread during staling: Physical phenomena and modeling. J. Food Eng. 211: 95-103.
Rao, P. A., Nussinovitch, A and P. Chinachoti. 1992. Effects of selected surfactants on amylopectin recrystallization and on recoverability of bread crumb during storage. Cereal Chem. 69(6): 613-618.
Richardson, G., Langton, M., Bark, A and A. M. Hermansson. 2003. Wheat starch gelatinization-the effects of sucrose, emulsifier and the physical state of the emulsifier. Starch/Stärke. 55(34): 150-161.
Riisom, T., Krog, N and J. Eriksen. 1984. Amylose complexing capacities of cis-and trans-unsaturated monoglycerides in relation to their functionality in bread. J. Cereal Sci. 2(2): 105-118.
Ring, S. G., Gee, J. M., Whittam, M., Orford, P and I. T. Johnson. 1988. Resistant starch: its chemical form in foodstuffs and effect on digestibility in vitro. Food Chem. 28(2): 97-109.
Sangnark, A and A. Noomhorm. 2003. Effect of particle sizes on functional properties of dietary fibre prepared from sugarcane bagasse. Food Chem. 80(2): 221-229.
Schoch, T. J and D. French. 1947. Studies on bread staling. I. The role of starch. Cereal Chem. 24: 231-249.
Shanthy, A. P., Sowbhagya, C. M and K. R. Bhattacharya. 1980. Simplified determination of water-insoluble amylose content of rice. Starch/Stärke. 32(12): 409-411.
Shu, H. C., Huang, T. H., Hsieh, C. Y and T. T. Ku. 1999. Practical Bread Production Technology (in Chinese) pp. 349-366, 391-394, China Grain Products Research and Development Institute, Taipei.
Sidhu, J. S., Al-Saqer, J and S. Al-Zenki. 1997. Comparison of methods for the assessment of the extent of staling in bread. Food Chem. 58(1-2): 161-167.
Wang, T. C., Lin, S. C., Shen, Y. P., Wang-Mccall, T. C., Lan, K. P., Chin, M. H., Cheng, P. Y and C. C. Yang. 2011. Studies of retarding agent for decreasing starch retrogradation in WanKao (Rice Curd). J. Food Qual. 34(4): 268-277.
Zobel, H. F. 1973. A review of bread staling. Baker’s Digest. 47: 52-61.