CAMEL COLOSTRUM: NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND IMPROVEMENT OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AFTER ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS
Camel colostrum collected within 24 h after parturition was analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological composition. The average contents of fats, dry matter, mineral matter and proteins were 1.71±0.51, 199.55±16.93, 9.75±0.5 and 143.42±36.42 gL-1, respectively. Microbiological analysis of colostrum samples showed richness in yeasts and Lactic acid bacteria and absence of coliforms. The good microbial quality of camel colostrum is due to a number of antimicrobial molecules such as immunoglobulins and lactoferrin. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against the pathogens Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. At concentration of 20 g L-1, colostrum caused an important inhibition of growth of all tested bacteria. It therefore seemed interesting to assess whether the compounds inhibit the growth of tested strains present in camel colostrum are resisting to the action of digestive enzymes. An in vitro hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin was then conducted. Hydrolyzed camel colostrum was still active against all pathogenic strains with inhibition rate ranging from 15.8% to 24.18%. This finding highlights the presence of antimicrobial fragments/peptides released during proteolytic hydrolysis that may contribute to the antimicrobial activity in camel colostrum and play a significant role in the host defence system.